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|More Information on the Toyota Supra|
The Toyota Supra (Japanese: ???·????, Toyota Supura) is a sports car and grand tourer manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation beginning in 1978. The initial four generations of the Supra were produced from 1978 to 2002. The fifth generation has been produced since March 2019 and went on sale in May 2019. The styling of the original Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the A70 Supra became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and named the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. The first, second and third generations of the Supra were assembled at the Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi, while the fourth generation was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City. The fifth generation of the Supra is assembled alongside the G29 BMW Z4 in Graz, Austria by Magna Steyr.
The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the 2000GT owing to an inline-6 layout. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A".
Along with this name, Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It was derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the A70 Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (The dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.)
In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the fourth generation of the Supra in the United States, production of the fourth generation of the Supra ended in 2002.
In January 2019, the fifth generation of the Supra, which was co-developed with the G29 Z4, was introduced.
First generation (A40/A50)
The first generation of the Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 129.5 mm (5.10 in). The doors and rear section were shared with the Celica but the front panels were elongated to accommodate the Inline-6 instead of the Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) Z-car.
In April 1978, Toyota began production of the Supra in Japan, as the Celica XX, and sold it alongside the Celica at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store
The Supra was offered with a 92 kW (123 hp; 125 PS) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU, chassis code MA45) or the 82 kW (110 hp; 111 PS) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E, chassis code MA46). The Japanese model was equipped with the smaller 2.0 L engine so that buyers would not incur an additional tax under vehicle size and engine displacement regulations. Both engines were equipped with electronic fuel injection. The installation of the 2.0-litre engine did obligate Japanese buyers to pay a higher annual road tax, making owning the car more expensive than the smaller Celica.
The Supra was first exported outside Japan in January 1979. The export model was originally equipped with an 82 kW (110 hp; 111 PS) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine.
Drive train options for the model were either a 5-speed manual (W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 56 km/h (35 mph). The drive train for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar.
The interior of the Supra had optional power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package also included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps with an optional sunroof. As for standard features, in the centre console there was an extendable map light and a flip-top armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, and a tonneau cover under the liftback. The dashboard also contained a state of the art AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel.
The mid 1979, changes for the 1980 model year US model were mostly cosmetic. The interior received a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors and 14x5?1/2 inch aluminum wheels were standard (the previous year had steel wheels with plastic wheel covers as standard and the aluminum wheels were optional). In addition, body molded mudflaps became available. On cars finished in copper metallic and white, the mudflaps were painted the body colour while the mudflaps were left black on all other colours. On the rear of the mudflaps, the word "Celica" was painted in white lettering.
The official Supra site also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control.
In August 1980 (for the 1981 model year), the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E engine. It was still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but had a power output of 87 kW (117 hp; 118 PS) and 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) of torque. The car's automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained a revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission a new chassis code of MA47 was given to the 1981 model. Performance figures for this model include a 0–97 km/h (60 mph) acceleration time of 10.24 seconds and a 1/4-mile time of 17.5 seconds at a speed of 125 km/h (77.7 mph).
Also in 1980 (for the 1981 model year), a new Sports Performance Package became an option, which included sport suspension, raised white letter tyres, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that an 8-track tape player was offered in any Supra.
The Celica XX (pronounced as "double X") is the Japanese market name of the first generation of the Celica Supra. It was offered in Japan during the years 1978–1981, and was redesigned in 1981. Toyota obtained engineering assistance from Lotus Cars, and supplied some components for use in the Lotus Excel. The Supra was sold as the Celica XX only in Japan at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store. In worldwide markets, it was sold as the Celica Supra.
The 2000GT was the flagship model of the XX range. Featuring the smaller 2.0-litre six-cylinder DOHC 24-valve 1G-EU, Yamaha took the base 1G-EU and improved it, resulting in the 1G-GEU significantly increasing the power output of the engine, this engine was also used in the 1985 Soarer. The smaller-capacity meant that road taxes were less than that of the 2800GT. 1G-GEU has a power output of 118 kW (158 hp; 160 PS) at 6,400 rpm.
The 2800GT was the most powerful of the range, featuring the 2.8-litre six-cylinder DOHC 5M-GEU engine which has a power output of 129 kW (173 hp; 175 PS) at 5,600 rpm. The 2000G/S has the M-TEU engine, which has a power output of 118 kW (158 hp; 160 PS) at 5,400 rpm, as much as the 1G-GEU, but has more torque lower down the rev range, 230 N·m (170 lb·ft) at 3,000 rpm. The lower-range models, being 2000G/S, were the least powerful, featuring the 1G-EU, which has a power output of 92 kW (123 hp; 125 PS) at 5,400 rpm. They also lacked a lot of features found on other models in an effort to lower cost.
In 1981, the Celica XX introduced the world's first navigation computer.
Second generation (A60)
In mid 1981, Toyota completely redesigned the Celica Supra as well as the entire Celica lineup for the 1982 model year. In Japan, they were known as the Celica XX, but the Celica Supra name was used for the world market. Still based on the Celica platform, there were several key differences, most notably the design of the front end and fully retractable pop-up headlights. Other differences were the inline-six rather than four-cylinder engine, as well as an increase in length and wheelbase to accommodate the larger engine. Cars installed with the 5M engine were slightly wider, while other models remained compliant with Japanese dimension regulations.
In 1981, Japanese buyers were offered an alternative to the Celica XX fastback bodystyle, called the Soarer coupé, which was offered at a different Japanese Toyota dealership network called the Toyota Store, as the Celica XX was sold at the Toyota Corolla Store. The four-door performance saloon called the Celica Camry was realigned with the Japanese market Chaser, while in North America the Cressida took on that role.
L-type and P-type
In the North American market, the Celica Supra was available in two distinct models. There was the "Performance Type" (P-type) and the "Luxury Type" (L-type). While being mechanically identical, they were differentiated by the available options; tire size, wheel size, and body trim. The P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type did not. The P-type was also standard with the more sporty eight-way adjustable seats. The P-type did not get the option of a leather interior until 1983. Initially, Luxury Type ment Automatic transmission, and Performance Type stood for Manual. All editions of the P-type had the same 14x7-inch aluminum alloy wheels and throughout the years the L-type had 14x5.5-inch wheels until 1985 when they were changed to a P-type styled 15x6. The L-type also had the option of a digital instrument cluster with a trip computer; some Canadian models (both L-types and P-types) had this option as well as a few rare instances of American models. The L-type cluster was easily distinguished from the P-type cluster, by the 'ECT' function written on the dial plate. The digital cluster featured a digital tachometer, digital speedometer, and electronic fuel level and coolant level gauges. The trip computer could calculate and display various things such as fuel economy in miles-per-gallon, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and distance remaining to destination. Supras with trip computers also came with cruise control. Excluding the 1982 model, all P-types were available with headlight washers as an option, but the L-types were never given such an option. Although gear ratios changed throughout the years, all P-types came standard with a limited slip differential.
For 1982, in the North American market, the Celica Supra's engine was the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 12-valve (two valves per cylinder) DOHC 5M-GE. Power output was 108 kW (145 hp; 147 PS) SAE net and 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) of torque. The engine used an 8.8:1 compression ratio to achieve the power and featured a vacuum advanced distributor. When the car debuted, it had a drag coefficient of Cd=0.348, a 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) acceleration time of 9.8 seconds and a 400 m (1/4 mile) time of 17.2-seconds at 129 km/h (80 mph).
The standard transmission for this year was the W58 5-speed manual with the A43DL 4-speed automatic transmission being an option for L-types. Both transmissions had an overdrive gear and the automatic featured a locking torque converter. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission had an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 56 km/h (35 mph). The 1982 model's rear differential had a 3.72:1 ratio. The Celica Supra's four-wheel independent suspension was specially tuned and designed by Lotus and had variable assisted power rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. At the rear, it had semi-trailing arm suspension with coil springs and a stabilizer bar. Braking on the Celica Supra was handled by four-wheel disc brakes.
On the interior, this generation had standard power windows, power door locks, and power mirrors as well as a tilt steering wheel. The power door lock was located in the center console next to the power mirror control. The analog dash of this model only showed a top speed of 88 mph (142 km/h) in North America. The optional automatic climate control was renovated and was now seen as a standard feature on the A60. Cruise control and a retractable map light was standard in this generation. Some options included the addition of a sunroof, two-tone paint schemes, and a five-speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner with a cassette player (Fujitsu Ten Limited). The optional cassette stereo had a 105-watt power amplifier and a seven-band graphic equalizer. The standard stereo was a five-channel AM/FM/MPX tuner. Leather interior was an option on the L-type model, but the P-type models limited to standard striped cloth interior.
The AM/FM antenna was integrated into the front windshield rather than a typical external mast antenna. There was a key lock on the gas tank door (in lieu of a remote release) and the hatch and rear bumper were black regardless of exterior colour on the rest of the car. The P-type was available with an optional rear window visor above the hatch glass. The tail lights had a reverse light in the centre and the door handles opened the doors by pulling sideways. The front nose badge and B-pillar only read "Supra" for the first several months of production, but were changed to read "Celica Supra" midway through the model year. The L-type had front and rear mudflaps but P-type of this year did not.
For the 1983 model year, not much was altered, but there was an increase in power output to 112 kW (150 hp; 152 PS) and 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) of torque from the same 5M-GE engine. The only real change in the engine area was the switch from a vacuum advanced to an electronic advanced distributor, yet that did not increase the power. Toyota switched to a 4.10:1 rear gear ratio for the P-type and a 3.73:1 for the L-type. As for the optional automatic transmission, they replaced the A43DL 4-speed with a newly designed A43DE 4-speed. It had an electronic controller that would adjust its shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy. It was the first in the industry to provide an electronically controlled transmission (ECT). This allowed the driver to choose either the "power" driving mode or "normal" driving mode at the touch of the button. The power mode provided the quickest acceleration and the normal mode provided the best all-around performance.
The interior virtually had no changes, but changes to the exterior included a switch to a power mast antenna, mudflaps on all models, and the addition of headlight washers on the P-type. All B-pillar and nose badges for cars sold in North America read "Celica Supra" and only the P-type was available in two-tone colour schemes.
Changes for the 1984 model year were significant. Power output was increased on the 5-speed models to 119 kW (160 hp; 162 PS) and 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) of torque. The increase was achieved by a mixture of a redesigned intake manifold with "D"-shaped intake runners and an increase in compression ratio to: 9.2:1. Another notable change in the 5-speed models was the switch to a 4.30:1 gear ratio in the rear differential. All automatic models retained the previous years power statistics, but the rear gear ratio was changed to 4.10:1.
The most notable exterior changes included the switch to wraparound front turn signals, the option of either a rear wing spoiler mounted high up on the rear hatch, or rear window and quarter window louvers. Also, the tail-lights were redesigned and the hatch received a billboard "Supra" sticker instead of the smaller sticker, which was previously positioned on the right. The rear hatch and bumper was changed and received the same colour as the rest of the car (instead of the black of previous years). The door handles were also switched, opening by pulling up instead of sideways. Two-tone paint schemes also became available on both the P-type and L-type models.
Some interior controls such as the steering wheel, cruise control, and door lock switch were redesigned. Toyota included a 130 mph (209 km/h) speedometer in North American models instead of the traditional 85 mph (140 km/h) speedometer and the automatic climate control display was also changed. The previous year's cassette and equalizer stereo option was now made a standard feature.
The Supra was redesigned again in 1985. On the engine side, power output was increased to 119 kW (160 hp; 162 PS) and 169 lb·ft (229 N·m) of torque. All models of this year had the same amount of power (both automatic models and 5-speed models). The engine received a redesigned throttle position sensor (TPS) as well as a new EGR system and knock sensor. With the slight increase in power the Supra was able to propel itself from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 8.4 seconds and netted a 16.1 second quarter-mile at 85 mph (137 km/h).
Other changes would be a redesigned, more integrated sunshade and spoiler on the rear hatch. The rear spoiler was changed from a one-piece to a two-piece. The L-types of this year were not available with a leather interior, but P-types were. Toyota added a standard factory theft deterrent system and the outside mirrors were equipped with a defogger that activated with the rear defroster. All Supras this year received automatic-off lights that also encompassed an automatic illuminated entry and fade-out system.
While 1985 was to be the last year of production of the second generation model, delays in production of the third generation model led to a surplus of second generation models. During the first half of 1986 the 1985 P-type was still offered for sale, with only minor cosmetic changes as well as the addition of a now mandatory rear-mounted third brake light on the hatch. These were all labelled officially as 1986 models. The P-type were the only model available for the 1986 model year. Production for the A60 Supra ended in December 1985 in order to make way for the upcoming A70 Supra.
The second generation of the Supra came in a variety of options around the world as well as only being offered during select years.
From August 1982 to 1983, the Celica XX, as it was named in Japan, had fender mirrors and came in four models depending on the engine:
From August 1983 to 1986, the Celica XX had door-mounted mirrors and the same four engines options but with performances improvements. The 5M-GEU engine compression ratio was increased to achieve 129 kW (173 hp; 175 PS) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque and the M-TEU engine upgraded with an air-to-liquid intercooler to 118 kW (158 hp; 160 PS) and 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) of torque.
Most of Europe
Australia, Sweden, and Switzerland
Third generation (A70)
In February 1986, the bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; they were now two completely different models. The Celica changed to a front-wheel drive layout, using the Toyota "T" platform associated with the Corona, while the Supra kept its rear-wheel-drive layout. The engine was updated to a more powerful 2,954 cc (3.0 L) inline-six engine rated at 149 kW (200 hp; 203 PS). Although initially only available with naturally aspirated engines, a turbocharged version was added in the 1987 model year. The Supra was now mechanically related to the Soarer for the Japanese market.
All Japanese market models with the various versions of the 2.0 L engine were slightly narrower overall so as to be in compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations so that Japanese buyers weren't liable for yearly taxes for driving a larger car.
The new engine used in the A70 Supra, the Toyota 7M-GE, was the flagship engine of Toyota's arsenal. Both versions of the engine contained 4 valves per cylinder and dual overhead cams. The turbocharged 7M-GTE engine was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the US which used coil packs sitting on the cam covers and a cam position sensor driven by the exhaust camshaft. It was equipped with a CT26 turbocharger and was rated at 172 kW (231 hp; 234 PS) at 5,600 rpm while the naturally aspirated 7M-GE engine was rated at 149 kW (200 hp; 203 PS) at 6,000 rpm. Further refinement on the turbo model increased power to 173 kW (232 hp; 235 PS) at 5,600 rpm and 254 lb·ft (344 N·m) of torque at 3,200 rpm in 1989. This was mostly due to a redesign of the wastegate. All models used the same tyre size of 225/50R16 on 16x7 inch wheels. Spare tyres were full-sized but on steel wheels.
The naturally aspirated model came standard with the W58 manual transmission. The turbocharged models included the R154 manual transmission. Both were available with the optional 4-speed A340E automatic transmission.
The third-generation of the Supra represented an arsenal of new technology. In 1986, options available for the Supra included a 3-channel ABS and TEMS which gave the driver two settings which affected the damper rates; a third was automatically activated at wide open throttle, hard braking and high speed maneuvering.
ACIS (Acoustic Control Induction System), a method of controlling air compression pulses inside the intake piping to increase power, was also a part of the 7M-GE's technological arsenal. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspension front and rear. A targa top was offered in all model years along with a metal power sliding sunroof (added in 1991).
Production numbers of the GA70/MA70/JZA70 Supra was estimated at 241,471 units.
The third generation of the Supra was introduced in February 1986 as a stand-alone model, officially being separate from the Celica. Whereas the Celica became a front-wheel-drive sport coupé, the Supra retained its image as a rear-wheel-drive sports/GT car. The new Supra would continue to move upscale and become a showcase for Toyota's technology. The Supra was powered by a 3.0-liter DOHC inline six-cylinder engine rated at 149 kW (200 hp; 203 PS). Notable features included an electronically controlled independent suspension (called the Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension – TEMS), and some came with a removable Sport-Roof panel (Targa top).
The A70 Supra Turbo was introduced in 1987. The inter-cooled, turbocharged version of the 3.0-liter inline 6-cylinder engine boosted power to 172 kW (231 hp; 234 PS) and 240 lb·ft (325 N·m) of torque. The engine, designated as 7M-GTE, is the first distributor-less mass production engine in the United States. This was accomplished with 3 coils being shared. The Turbo model also included an engine oil cooler and an integrated rear spoiler. The sports package, which was standard on the Turbo and optional on the base model, included a limited slip differential (LSD), TEMS, and headlamp washers. A new 4-channel Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) was optional on both models. In 1987, a new beige/tan color combination was implemented, and only 1,000 cars were produced with this scheme. Toyota installed its variable induction technology into the DOHC twin-turbocharged 1G-GT engine called T-VIS and also included it into the 7M-GT engine as well.
Changes for the 1988 model year were nominal with the exception of the discontinuation of two-toned brown exterior paint. The spoiler mounted brake light changed from a square to a trapezoid shape. Seat pattern was changed from squares to lines, and "foil" on climate control and switch gear changed from light to dark gray. Japanese buyers could select from six different trim packages starting with the top level 3.0 GT Turbo Limited with the 7M-GTEU engine, followed by the 3.0 GT Turbo, GT Twin Turbo with the 1G-GTEU DOHC 2.0 L engine, the GT with the 2.0 L DOHC 1G-GEU engine, the G with the 1G-EU engine and the S with the 1G-EU engine as the base model. All Japanese models came with either a 5-speed manual transmission or the 4-speed automatic transmission with ECT-s except the G and the S on which the ECT-s wasn't available. In Japan, the 3.0 GT Turbo Limited, the 3.0 GT Turbo and the GT Twin Turbo were installed standard with a digital instrument panel, the 3.0 L models came with an AM/FM Cassette stereo with an integrated CD player and cruise control. Climate control was also standard on all turbocharged models, and leather interior was only available on the GT Turbo Limited.
Changes for the 1989 model year include modifications to the wastegate actuator, feed location and engine management increased power output by 1.5 kW (2 hp; 2 PS) on the turbo model. The engine mount and brace were also revised in late 1989. The changes made to the cross member and mounts made to accommodate the 1JZ engine for Japanese models. The protective body molding was also changed by taking away the steel reinforcement. This made the molding lighter and prevented the rusting problem found on the previous year models. The "white package" was introduced as well, featuring white body molding and white "saw blade" wheels. Interior choices were limited to blue and burgundy only. Other than pure cosmetics changes, there was nothing different from other models. All models received rear 3-point seat belts to replace the previous years' two-point lap belts. New tail lights, front bumper with integrated lower grille (as opposed to the previous years' detachable grille), side mirrors, turn signals, upper grilles, foglights, steering wheel, door panels, climate control, window switches and bezels, and stereo. Addition of coat hooks on B-pillar and removal of rear seat pockets round out interior changes. Turbo models received three piece spoiler with an integrated LED brake light. 1989 also marked the end of headlight washers in the US and SuperMonitor; an advanced system offered by Toyota able to calculate miles able to be traveled on current tank, ability to check vehicle codes from inside the cabin, among other features.
For the 1990 model year, changes included larger protective laminate in front of rear wheels, lower redline (owing to the heavier crank with cylinders 2 & 5 counterbalanced), redesigned steering wheel with cruise control relocated to a stalk on the right side. In addition to an airbag and airbag indicator light on dashboard, the left side of the switch panel was also redesigned, which replaced one of the coin slots with the dimmer. The lower dashboard panel became a two piece design, which was also much heavier than the previous one piece panel owing to a change in material. Finally, the memory lever on the steering column was removed. In short, a plethora of the changes for the 1989 and 1990 were from the interior.
For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels. Both models wore 16x7 aluminum alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tyres and full-sized spares on steel wheels. Body molding changed in colour to better match the exterior. The front "Supra" emblem was also changed to the current corporate oval Toyota symbol was used from this model year onwards. The speedometer was also revised, and included more line that were removed in 1989, but still did not have as many (one line per mph) as 86.5 as the 1988 models. New interior colours namely shadow gray and deep red were introduced, which marked the end of medium gray, tan and burgundy. Blue interior became only available on white packages, and those with blue paint. Burgundy was replaced with white package-only deep red. Every other body colour received a shadow gray interior, with leather interiors retaining medium gray seats and interior inserts. Front speakers were changed from 3.5 inch to 6.5 inches and the speaker cover was also enlarged to accommodate them. Beginning in 1991, Toyota began to offer a factory spoiler-style panel sunroof. These sunroofs are now highly sought after and rare since they were introduced in the ending production years of the A70 Supra.
For the 1992 model year, the leather shadow gray interiors received black seats and inserts. Non-turbo models lost the option of a targa top, and a new optional subwoofer was available. Subwoofer-equipped Supras did without the rear bins and wooden "floorboard". Instead, rear carpet was molded to the spare tire, and there was a cut-out for the woofer housing.
JZA70 and GA70
The Japanese models of the Supra were given the chassis codes JZA70 and GA70 respectively. The JZA70 has a 2.5-litre 206 kW (276 hp; 280 PS) parallel twin-turbocharged 1JZ-GTE engine, and the GA70 has a 2.0-litre 154 kW (207 hp; 209 PS) twin-turbocharged 1G-GTE and a naturally aspirated 1G-GEU engines respectively.
In addition to the introduction of the JZA70 in 1990, Toyota introduced a special version of the JZA70 with the 1JZ-GTE engine known as the 2.5 Twin Turbo R model (JZA70-R). It boasted additional upgrades, including lighter sway bars, a larger intercooler, Torsen differential, Interbred TEIN/Bilstein sports suspension, Shadow/Dark grey interior trim, MOMO steering wheel and gear knob and Recaro seats and door trim. The wheels were painted charcoal grey, and the front bumper lip featured channeled air ducts for the front brakes. The Twin Turbo R introduced a new and exclusive colour option in 1992 for JZA70-R models known as Jade Mica Green. The JZA70-R model is the lightest and fastest model of third generation of the Supra.
The Turbo-A was Toyota's evolution model for the Group A Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC) all over the world that required a minimum homologation run of 500 units. The Turbo-A was manufactured for 2 months during the period of September and October 1988 and was available strictly in Japan. Thus the term 88 Spec A. Some notable differences between the standard MA70 Supra 3.0 GT and the Turbo-A model are both cosmetic and mechanical. The standard CT-26 turbo had a slightly larger inducer and can be identified by a stamped "E" on the raised casting on the compressor housing. The Turbo-A had a 65 mm (2.6 in) wide throttle body and accompanied a larger diameter "blank" crossover pipe, instead of the standard 7M-GTE 60 mm (2.4 in) throttle body and original "3000" cast pipe. The Turbo-A also benefited from a larger volume steel air cleaner instead of the factory plastic unit, as well as thicker roll bars and ventilated brake discs all-round.
The fuel management used a MAP system, instead of the standard Karmen Vortex AFM. The front nose features an additional "Turbo A duct" to add airflow to the top area of the intercooler. Also unique was the side decal and rear badging ("3.0GT Turbo A") and a black paint job (paint code 202). All cars came standard with grey leather interior featuring a MOMO-sourced steering wheel and shift knob. It is powered by a 204 kW (274 hp; 277 PS) Toyota 7M-GTEU engine. It is important to note that the 7M-GTEU was standard in all Japanese MA70 models and is not unique to the Turbo-A. The "U" designation meant the engine came equipped with a catalytic converter as per Japan emission laws.
The Group-A MA70 Supra had varying degrees of success in various fields such as Rally and 24HR, but is most known for its participation in the Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC). In the JTCC, the Supra did not win as many races as intended, which is primarily judged on the fact it was underdeveloped and its placement in a higher tier division under regulations because of the 3.0-litre engine displacement, imposing the Toyota with the performance inhibition of running with a higher curb weight and less power compared to the rest of its class. Both the TOM'S and SARD teams fared well in results in the (JTCC) with the TOM'S team winning on its debut in 1987, before abruptly ending their (JTCC) career with the MA70 Group-A in 1989. Upon its initial Australian Touring Car Championship (ATCC) debut in 1989, the Group-A Supra failed to finish its first race. With DNF's becoming a regular upset owing to the lack of power and heavy weight of the Supra, it began to strike doubt in the car's capability of success in the (ATCC) which suffered increasingly due to constant rules and regulation changes issuing a red-faced outcome against its main rivals like the Ford Sierra Cosworth RS500, Nissan Skyline HR31 GTS-R and the BMW M3 (E30) which were lighter, more powerful, and had smaller displacement engines. Hopes would further diminish for Toyota in the top division by the introduction of the domineering Nissan Skyline GT-R (R32) in the (JTCC) in 1989 and the Australian Touring Car Championship (ATCC) in 1990. Toyota in 1991 would switch to racing the Corolla Levin instead in the lower tier divisions, while many privateer teams soldiered on with the Supra until the Group A racing's final demise in 1993. It is said that than a handful of Group-A MA70's remain in existence after being returned to Japan to be destroyed once the Group-A racing ended. One of those known to be intact was retained by an original driver and privateer of the (ATCC) John Smith in Australia, which still sees track time and limelight at car shows today.
Only eleven MA70 Group-A cars were built by TRD Japan for homologation racing. A few out of many special developed parts that were fitted to the various Group-A race cars happen to include a cast magnesium nine litre oil pan with matching high flow oil pump, 288 camshafts with 10.88mm lift, Hollinger close proportion 5-speed gear-set in the R154 case, Harrop 4 piston brake calipers with 15.5 ? (393 mm) rotors, and TRD-sourced torque-vectoring mechanical limited-slip differential with 50:50 left:right lockup on full throttle. TRD was also responsible for the thick rear-anti squat tram-rods which were integral to the multi-link rear suspension setup to control rear squat under hard acceleration and launching.
Fourth generation (A80)
The A80 program began in February 1989 under various teams for design, product planning, and engineering led by Isao Tsuzuki. By the middle of 1990, a final A80 design concept from Toyota Technical Centre Aichi was approved and frozen for production in late 1990. The first test mules were hand-built in A70 bodies during late 1990, followed by the first A80 prototypes being hand-assembled in 1991. Again using subframe, suspension, and drivetrain assemblies from the Z30 Soarer (Lexus SC300/400), pre-production of the test models started in December 1992 with 20 units, and official mass production began in April 1993. The fourth generation of the Supra again shared its platform with the upscale Soarer coupé, sold in the U.S. as the Lexus SC. Although the two cars looked similar, the new Supra was more than 13 inches (340 mm) shorter than its luxurious cousin. The rounded styling, while modern, does seem to borrow some elements from Toyota's first grand touring sports car, the 2000GT.
This redesign saw Toyota placing great emphasis on a more serious high-performance car. It featured two new engines: a naturally aspirated Toyota 2JZ-GE having a power output of 164 kW (220 hp; 223 PS) at 5,800 rpm and 210 lb·ft (285 N·m) at 4,800 rpm of torque and a twin turbocharged Toyota 2JZ-GTE having a power output of 206 kW (276 hp; 280 PS) and 318 lb·ft (431 N·m) of torque for the Japanese model. For the export model (American/European markets) Toyota upgraded the Supra turbo's engine (by installing smaller, steel wheeled turbochargers and bigger fuel injectors, etc.). This increased the power output to 239 kW (321 hp; 325 PS)at 5,600 rpm and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) of torque at 4,000 rpm (243 kW (326 hp; 330 PS) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m) for European markets) Upon its launch in 1993, it was the first Toyota-badged vehicle to include a passenger airbag as standard (US-market only).
The turbocharged variant could accelerate to 97 km/h in as low as 4.6 seconds and cover 1/4-mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at 175 km/h (109 mph). The turbo version has a tested top speed of 285 km/h (177 mph), but the cars are restricted to just 180 km/h (112 mph) in Japan and 250 km/h (155 mph) in worldwide markets. European versions of the car also had an air intake or scoop on the hood. It has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.31 for the naturally aspirated models and 0.32 for the turbo models but unknown with the rear spoiler.
The twin turbochargers operated in sequential mode instead of parallel. Initially, all of the exhaust gases are routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1,800 rpm, where it already produced 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) of torque. At 3,500 rpm, some of the exhaust gases are routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. At 4,000 rpm, the second turbo's output is used to augment the first turbo's output. Compared to the parallel mode, sequential mode turbo chargers provide quicker low RPM response and increased high RPM boost. This high RPM boost was also aided with technology originally present in the 7M-GE in the form of the Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS) which is a way of managing the air compression pulses within the intake piping as to increase power.
For this generation, the Supra received a new six-speed Getrag/Toyota V160 gearbox on the turbo models while the naturally aspirated models were equipped with a five-speed manual W58 transmission, revised from the previous model. Each model was offered with a four-speed automatic with manual shifting mode. All vehicles were equipped with five-spoke aluminum alloy wheels, the naturally aspirated models had 16-inch wheels and the turbo models had 17-inch wheels. The difference in wheel size was to accommodate the larger brakes equipped as standard onto the turbo model, but in Japan were optional extras. Both models had a space saver spare tyre on a steel rim to save both space and weight.
Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of this new model. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (when fitted), front crossmember, oil and transmission pans, and forged upper suspension A-arms. Other measures included hollow carpet fibers, magnesium-alloy steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a single pipe exhaust. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, wheels, tires, and an additional turbocharger, the car was at least 91 kg (200 lb) lighter than its predecessor. The base model with a manual transmission had a curb weight of 1,456 kg (3,210 lb). The targa top added 18 kg (40 lb) of weight while the automatic transmission added 25 kg (55 lb). The fourth generation model had a 51:49 (front:rear) weight distribution. The turbo model weighed 1,565 kg (3,450 lb) with a manual transmission while the automatic added another 4.5 kg (10 lb) to the overall weight. Weight distribution was 53% front/47% rear. The Supra was heavier than the spartan Mazda RX-7 and all aluminium bodied Acura/Honda NSX, but was lighter than the Mitsubishi 3000GT VR-4.
For the 1996 model year in the US, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission owing to OBD-II certification requirements. The targa roof was also made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, manual transmission returned for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, headlights, front fascia, polished wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges indicating "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary". All turbo models came standard with the rear spoiler. For 1998, updates were a 3-spoke steering wheel, a redesigned radio, and VVT-i on the normally aspirated engine. In Japan, the turbo engines were installed with VVT-i. The SZ-R model was also updated with the introduction of a six-speed Getrag V161 transmission, the same used for the twin-turbo RZ models.
The standard A80 Supra chassis has also proven an effective platform for roadracing, with several top 20 and top 10 One Lap of America finishes in the SSGT1 class. In 1994, the A80 managed remarkable skidpad ratings of 0.95 lateral g's (200 ft) and 0.98 lateral g's (300 ft) The Supra also featured a four-sensor four-channel track tuned ABS system with yaw control whereby each caliper is sensored and the brakes are controlled individually according to the speed, angle, and pitch of the approaching corner. This unique Formula One-inspired braking system allowed the Supra Turbo to record a 113 km/h (70 mph) -0 braking distance of 149 ft (45 m), the best braking performance of any production car tested in 1997 by Car and Driver magazine. This record was finally broken in 2004 by a Porsche Carrera GT, which did it in 145 ft (44 m) .
By the late 1990s, sales of all sport coupés were declining in North America. Furthermore, a stronger yen pushed prices up in markets outside Japan. The Supra was withdrawn from the Canadian market in 1996 and the US in 1998. The Turbo was not available in 1998 in California Air Resources Board (CARB) states. Production continued in Japan until August 2002, ceasing owing to restrictive emission standards.
Fifth generation (J29/DB)
Motor Trend had reported that a possible Supra successor could be based on the FT-HS (Future Toyota-Hybrid Sport), which debuted at the 2007 North American International Auto Show. The publication also reported that the fifth generation of the Supra could be powered by a 3.5-liter V-6 hybrid system rated at over 298 kW (400 hp; 405 PS). Toyota quoted that it was not rushing for the Supra successor but instead was waiting to see how the sales of the GT86/FR-S went.
In 2010, Toyota applied for a trademark for the Supra name. The trademark had to be used within three years for it to be valid. In December 2011, Autoguide reported a possible Supra replacement would be positioned above the GT86. Tetsuya Tada, the chief engineer of the Toyota 86/Scion FR-S told reporters in Germany in 2012 "the president (Akio Toyoda) has asked me to make a successor to the Supra as soon as possible."
In late 2013, AutoBlog reported a concept for a proposed successor to the Supra would be making its debut the January 2014 North American International Auto Show. On 13 January, Toyota unveiled its new FT-1 concept car. Little technical detail was disclosed about this new concept car; other than that it has a front engine and rear wheel drive layout. Toyota also stated that their new concept car draws inspiration from Toyota's past sports cars like the 2000GT, Supra, MR-2 and 2007 FT-HS concept car. Toyota did not state whether the FT-1 would use the Supra name, or if it was even bound for production.
On 10 February 2014, Toyota submitted an application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to renew the Supra trademark.
In June 2016, a trademark application for the Supra nameplate was filed with the European Union Intellectual Property Office. According to Autocar, the new Supra was set to debut in 2018. The publication reported that the car would likely feature rear wheel drive; four-cylinder engines were expected to be available, and it had been confirmed that the car would offer a turbocharged inline-6 engine. It was believed that these engines would be supplied by BMW. Kleine Zeitung reported that the new jointly developed Supra will be produced at a Magna Steyr facility near Graz, Austria, alongside the BMW Z4 (G29). Although the sports car's name was yet to be officially confirmed, Toyota global chief engineer Tetsuya Tada said that it will likely carry the nameplate Supra, due to its name recognition and historical significance.
On 5 July 2018, Toyota Gazoo Racing announced that the Supra to race in the 2019 NASCAR Xfinity Series. The new Supra made its NASCAR debut in February 2019.
On 12 July 2018, a camouflaged pre-production version of the Supra was unveiled at the Goodwood Festival of Speed.
The fifth generation of the Supra was unveiled at the 2019 North American International Auto Show held in January. The car is a collaboration between Toyota and BMW and is based on the Z4. The first production model was auctioned at a price of US$2.1 million at a Barrett-Jackson auction to Craig Jackson (chairman and CEO of the Barrett-Jackson auction house) in January 2019, with 100% of the money going to the American Heart Association and the Bob Woodruff Foundation. The auction car has a one-off matte grey exterior color which is not offered on the production variant of the Supra, as well as a red interior, metallic black 5-bolt wheels, red wing mirrors, a signature from Toyota CEO Akio Toyoda on the dashboard and VIN number 20201.
The Supra went on sale in Japan on 17 May 2019. In the United States, sales began on 22 July 2019. In Australia, sales began on 2 September 2019.
The Supra is powered by two BMW-sourced engine options: a turbocharged 2.0-litre inline-four or a turbocharged 3.0-litre inline-six engine. The 2.0-litre engine is currently only offered in Japan, select Asian countries and Europe, the United States is set to receive the engine for the 2021 model year. The 2.0-litre engine has variable power outputs of 145–190 kW (194–255 hp; 197–258 PS) from 4,500 to 6,500 rpm or 5,000 to 6,500 rpm and 320–400 N·m (236–295 lbf·ft) of torque from 1,450 to 4,200 rpm or 1,550 to 4,400 rpm, while the 3.0-litre engine has a power output of 250–285 kW (335–382 hp; 340–387 PS) from 5,000 to 6,500 rpm or 5,800 to 6,500 rpm and 495–500 N·m (365–369 lbf·ft) from 1,600 to 4,500 rpm or 1,800 to 5,000 rpm, with power sent to the rear wheels through a ZF 8HP 8-speed automatic transmission. A manual transmission option is currently not offered. The 2.0 L model can accelerate from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 5.2 to 6.5 seconds, while the 3.0 L model can accelerate from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 3.9–4.1 seconds, 0.7–0.5 seconds quicker than the turbocharged variant of the A80 Supra and has an electronically limited top speed of 249 km/h (155 mph).
The test conducted by Car and Driver in May 2019 recorded the acceleration of the 3.0 L model from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 3.8 seconds, which is 0.3 seconds faster than the factory claimed. The 402 m (1/4 mile) time is also recorded in 12.3 seconds at 182 km/h (113 mph).
The Supra is offered in three trim levels, which are the SZ, SZ-R and RZ. The SZ model is powered by the 145 kW (194 hp; 197 PS) 2.0-liter engine and is equipped with 17-inch single tone wheels, manual seats, black fabric upholstery, dark silver trim and a 4-speaker sound system. The SZ-R model is powered by the 190 kW (255 hp; 258 PS) variation of the 2.0-liter engine and is equipped with 18-inch two tone wheels, eight-way powered seats, Alcantara/black leather upholstery, carbon fiber trim, 8.8-inch touchscreen multimedia system with 12-speaker JBL stereo sound system and a head-up display. The RZ model is powered by the 3.0-liter engine and is equipped with 19-inch two tone wheels. It also has the same interior equipments as the SZ-R model, with the difference being the use of Alcantara/red leather upholstery (black leather is available as an option) and sports pedals. A "Sport" mode and dual-zone climate control system is standard on all three variants, as is the Toyota Supra Connect infotainment system. All variants are also equipped with Toyota Supra Safety suite, which includes autonomous emergency braking, lane departure alert, blind spot monitor, adaptive cruise control and rear-cross traffic alert. GR Parts is also available, including the Toyota Gazoo Racing Recorder, which allows drivers to log their driving data to an SD card. This can be supplemented by an optional dashcam, which synchronises the video with the recorded information.
The Supra is sold in Australia with two variants, including the GT and GTS.
The GR Supra is offered in the US in two variants, excluding the Launch Edition variant, which are the 3.0 and 3.0 Premium. The 3.0 variant has a 6.5-inch center touchscreen multimedia system with Bluetooth and standard Alcantara trimmed seats, while the 3.0 Premium has a larger touchscreen multimedia system (8.8-inches), standard navigation, wireless Apple CarPlay, 12-speaker JBL stereo sound system, wireless phone charging, color head-up display and heated leather seats. All variants have collision warning, automatic high beams, automatic emergency braking with pedestrian detection, lane departure warning and a feature that recognizes road signs as standard.
The first 1,500 cars sold are the special Launch Edition variants which are based on the 3.0 Premium variant and offered in three colours: Absolute Zero White, Nocturnal Black and Renaissance Red 2.0. Cars that have the white or black exterior colour have the same red interior as the auction car, which is only offered in the Launch Edition, while the red cars have a black interior. All Launch Edition cars have a red coloured wing mirrors and a replica of Akio Toyoda's signature on a carbon fiber plaque fixed to the dashboard, mirroring the auction car.
For the 2021 model year, two new models, the A91 Edition and the 2.0, will be introduced. For the 3.0, 3.0 Premium, and A91 Edition, the output of the 3-liter engine will be increased to 285 kW (382 hp) and 499 N·m (368 lb·ft) of torque. The 2.0 will feature the same 2-liter engine used in the SZ and SZ-R models sold in Japan, and is rated at 190 kW (255 hp) and 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) of torque.
The Supra went on sale in Mexico on 22 August 2019.
The Supra is offered in standard and base Track variants.
The Malaysian market Supra was launched on 20 September 2019.
The Philippine market Supra was launched on 9 July 2019.
The Taiwanese market Supra is offered in 2.0T, 2.0T Premium and 3.0T Premium trim levels.
The Indonesian market Supra was introduced at the 27th Gaikindo Indonesia International Auto Show in July 2019 and went on sale in October 2019.
The Thai market Supra was introduced at the Bangkok International Motor Show in March 2019 and went on sale in November 2019.
On 12 September 2019, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced a safety recall issued by BMW on the Supra for the seat belt guide loop mounts, which were welded improperly. Only seven units are affected by this recall notice. Of the seven, only one was in the hands of an owner.
On 27 September 2019, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also announced safety recalls towards several BMW models for their faulty backup cameras. Owners were able to glitch the cameras into not working when backing up. A software patch fixed the issue. The Supra was listed in the recall, as well as direct BMW models such as the X3, X5, 3 Series, 7 Series, 8 Series and more. Even Rolls Royce (which is owned by BMW) was included in the recall for their Phantom and Cullinan.
While Toyota used the "A90" code for promotional and marketing materials for the fifth generation Supra, a reference to the A40–A80 model and chassis codes used for previous generation Supras, the fifth generation Supra uses BMW naming conventions. The fifth generation Supra actually uses a J29 series code with DB model codes.
GR Supra Racing Concept
The GR Supra Racing Concept is a concept racing car that previews the racing version of the fifth generation Supra. It debuted at the March 2018 Geneva Motor Show. The design was inspired from the 2014 FT-1 concept. It features a lowered suspension with Toyota OEM parts, BBS center-lock racing wheels, Brembo racing calipers, a full roll cage and fire extinguisher system, a stripped out interior, Michelin track tires and a center exit racing exhaust. It also features carbon fiber for the hood, splitter, diffuser, mirror caps, side skirts, wing and bumpers. It is unknown what engine powered the concept.
GR Supra GT4
The GR Supra GT4 Concept is a concept racing car that is built for participating the European GT4 racing series. It was first shown at the March 2019 Geneva Motor Show. Upgrades include reduced weight, upgraded brakes and suspension and the addition of a rear wing and roll cage.
Toyota later unveiled a production model in October 2019, with an engine rated at 435 PS (320 kW; 429 hp). It has a seven-speed automatic, as opposed to the eight-speed unit on standard road going models, and has an Akrapovic exhaust system which enables the increase in power. Inside, an FIA-standard racing seat is present featuring a six-point harness, along with a carbon fiber instrument cluster. Motorsport ABS, a data logger and a fire extinguisher are standard, while an illuminated car number is optional. The GT4 is equipped with six-piston front and four-piston rear brake calipers. Pirelli P Zero racing tires and OZ wheels are fitted, supported by KW dampers. The roll cage and rear wing are also carried over from the concept. Sales are expected to begin Europe in March 2020, followed by North America in August 2020 and Japan/Southeast Asia in October 2020.
The Supra has been used in many levels of motorsport, with some prominent examples being in Group A (international) and JGTC (Japan)
In popular culture
The Supra has appeared in numerous notable appearances, including the Initial D Arcade Stage, Initial D, Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Sega GT, Assetto Corsa, Tokyo Xtreme Racer, Need for Speed, Midnight Club, Wangan Midnight, Asphalt and Forza Horizon video games and The Fast and the Furious film series.
Generation names are A40, A60, A70, A80 and J29/DB. A trend started by American owners was to name the cars using Volkswagen Mark terms but this was never adopted by Toyota nor used in any of its publications. The officia
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